ENG 213 Handouts

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Below are the terms discussed in the Morphology lecture.

 MORPHEME--The smallest meaningful combination of letters in the formation of a word

MONOMORPHEMIC-- that is words that are one morpheme (no matter how long) that cannot be broken into smaller morphemes

POLYMORPHEMIC-- words that are more than one morpheme (no matter how short) 

BOUND--the unit of letters HAS to be added to something else in order to make sense or have meaning.  Like ununless it is attached to something else, it has no meaning. 

FREE--the unit of letters can be added to something, have something added to it, or it can stand by itself and have meaning without any other morphemes

BOUND:  -dom

FREE:  free, serf, king, bore

          BOUND:  un-

FREE:  character(istic), seen, like

ROOT-- The smallest meaningful combination of letters in the formation of a word  (same definition as the morpheme)

AFFIXES:  prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and circumfixes.

                Prefix--before the root (pre-, un-, dis-)

                Suffix--after the root (-ish, -able)

                Infix--in the middle of the root (absofrickinlutely)

                Circumfix--at the beginning and end of the root

Derivational (derives from something else).  The addition of an affix changes the root into a new word altogether in meaning, purpose, function, etc.

                ROOT:  ugly (adjective used to modify a noun)

                DERIVITIVES:      uglify (verb--to make ugly)

                                                uglification (noun--the state of being ugly)

 Inflectional--the addition of an affix does not change the meaning of the root, it only changes the grammatical form.  When you conjugate a verb (I wait, we waited, they are waiting) or when you make something plural by adding an endingdog becomes dogs, etc.

Suppletive form--irregular verbs or nouns that dont follow the rules.  For example:  He goes.  He went (not goed).  The child is and then children are

COINING--creating a new word for the lexicon (not just adding morphemes together but creating a new word).  Jello, Kleenix, Xerox

COMPOUNDS--two complete words worked together like sleepwalking or bittersweet

BLENDS--half of two different words (selected morphemes) put together like smoke and fog together to create smog

EPONY--Musing someones name to create a new word/label for something.  Like sandwich for the Earl of sandwich who needed his food between bread while he played cards.

ACRONYM--letters from the beginnning of a name that have formed their own word with a specific meaning.  For example:  NASA, Unicef, Nato, etc.

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