Homonyms: Different words pronounced, and possibly spelled, the same.
to, two, too; bare, bear; bat--the animal or bat--the stick for baseball.
Heteronyms: words spelled the same but pronounced differently and having different meanings.
Sow (the pig) sow (plant seeds)
Homographs: words spelled the same, possibly even pronounced the same, that have different meanings
Trunk (the elephants nose OR a place to pack your clothes)
Synonyms: Different words with the same (or nearly the same) meaning.
sofa and couch; purse and handbag; car and automobile.
Antonyms: Words that are opposite in meaning.
There are complementary pairs--one is the negation of the other: to be alive is to be not dead, so alive vs. dead.
Gradable pairs--more of one is less of the other: more warm is less cold; there is gradation related to the word being modified (a large mouse is not the same as a large elephant but there is a difference between a large mouse and a small elephant).
Relational opposites--shows the same relationship is the words were reversed: parent vs. child; employer vs. employee (John is the parent of Charlie; Charlie is the child of John. Steve is the employer of Susan. Susan is the employee of Steve.)
Paraphrase: sentences with the same meaning, except possibly for minor differences in emphasis.
He ran up a big bill and He ran a big bill up.
Anomalous: sentences that deviate from certain semantic rules.
The six subjunctive crumbs twitched
Metaphorical (speak in metaphor): may have a literal and a non-literal meaning. Similar to slang--this could mean something to a particular group.
He=s out in left field. I would not touch her with a ten foot pole.
Speech acts: the act of stating something makes it so (or makes it happen). The non-linugustic accomplishments of an utterance.
I promise...; I now pronounce you husband and wife; Look out (as a warning)
Presupposition: Implicit assumptions about the world required to make an utterance meaningful or appropriate.
AThe law will make getting visas more difficult.@ presupposes that visas were already difficult to get.
Deixis: descibes words or expressions whose reference relies entirely on context for meaning.
person, time place or demonstrative article deixis. I, you, there, now, then, this, etc.
Sytax: he rules of sentence formation; the component of the mental grammar that represents speakers= knowledge of the structure orphrases and sentences
Rules of Sytax: principles of grammar which account for grammaticality, word order, structural ambiguity, meaning relations between words, and more.
Lexicon: the component of the grammar containing speakers= knowledge about morphemes and words; a speaker=s mental dictionary.