Accent: the pronunciation of a specific regional dialect or of a language by a nonnative speaker.
Dialect: language variety used by a particular group of speakers; mutually intelligible forms of a language that differ in systematic ways from each other.
Code-switching: the insertion of a word or phrase of a language other than that being spoken into a single sentence, or the movement back and forth between two languages or dialects.
Borrowing: the incorporating of a loan word from one language into another.
Broadening/narrowing: the changing of the meaning of a word in time to be more or less encompassing than originally intended. "dog" used to mean one specific type of dog but the term broadened; "hound" used to mean any type of dog but it has been narrowed.
Pidgin: a simple but rule-governed language developed for communication among speakers of mutually unintelligible languages, often based on one of these languages.
Creole: when a pidgin is taught to a new generation as their first language
Lingua franca: the major language used in an area where speakers of more than one language live that permits communication and commerce among them.
Jargon: special words peculiar to the members of a profession or group. For example: "Quiddich" "The Snitch" "The Quaffle"
Slang: words or phrases used on a casual speech often invented and spread by close-knit social or age groups.
Register (style): the type of dialect used in particular situations (regional and social dialects too)