1. Card Stacking--when you pile on the negative information without thinking (or acknowledging) the positive elements.
2. Hasty Generalization--making a decision based on too little evidence.
3. Overgeneralization--taking a
hasty generalization and applying it to ALL similar circumstances.
4. Ad Hominem--"against the man."
When you turn the argument against the person who holds an opposing view rather than arguing about the issue at hand.
5. Non Sequitur--"it does not follow." Making a logical leap where a point doesn't necessarily lead to the
6. Shifting the burden of proof--saying to the audience "well, YOU can't prove anything different!"
7. Either/or--saying that there are only two ways to view the issue, and that your way is "right."
8. Post Hoc ergo propter hoc--"after therefore because." Assuming that because there is a time relationship
(that something happened next) that therefore there is a causal relationship.
9. Circular--using different words
with the same meaning in an effort to prove the side of the issue.
10. Begging the question--assumes that the
foundation of your side is true without proving it, then using that foundation to build your argument.
If you would like to practice identifying and correcting the logical fallacies listed here, please click on the picture below
to go to the Exercises page.