Said Article exercise
Comma review
Library Searches
If Not Higher
Checksheet for Research
Avoiding Plagiarism
Works Cited
Intext Citation
Thesis Statements
Dos and Don'ts
Logical Fallacies
Said Article exercise
Review Questions for Country People and Husband
A Doll's House Review
Re-Write it Right
Unclear Sentences
Why Do Clocks Run Clockwise?
Spell Checker Poem
Contact Me
Organizing in Time Order
Organizing in Emphatic Order
Organizing in Time and Emphatic order

When you use a source in your writing, one of the hardest things to do is work the information in smoothly. The following article is from the Arizona Republic and contains the word "said" 19 times. Your task is to change the word 18 times to something other than "said."

by Jim Walsh
July 1, 1990

The Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections, the product of reforms designed to replace punishment with treatment for juvenile offenders, still will use some practices that have drawn controversy and a federal lawsuit. The department, which begins operation today, plans to use isolation and "four pointing," or the tying of inmates' hands and feet to bedposts, although for briefer periods and with more controls than have been used in the past, officials SAID. The policies nonetheless are drawing criticism from inmate-rights activists and the father who filed the federal lawsuit four years ago that is widely credited with prompting the state to reform its juvenile-justice system. Carol Hurtt, director of the new agency and formerly head of the juvenile division of the state Corrections Department, defends the continued, limited use of isolation and four-pointing of juvenile inmates. "If a juvenile is banging his head against a brick wall, he will be four-pointed to protect himself," she SAID. An inmate who poses a threat to himself or others will be placed alone in a small room with no windows, she added.

'Structure' needed
"There has to be some structure," Hurtt SAID. "There has to be a sense of holding young people accountable for their behavior." But David Lambert, an attorney with the National Center for Youth Law in San Francisco and co-counsel in the federal lawsuit, described four-pointing as "counterproductive" and SAID he has reservations about its continued use, because of past abuses. "The history of the use of four-point restraints (in Arizona) has been sordid indeed," he SAID. "It's a draconian method of restraint. By definition, the way it has been used is very punitive." And Dave Johnson, who filed the Johnson vs. Upchurch lawsuit in U.S. District Court in Tucson on his son's behalf, SAID he will refuse to settle the 1986 suit until the state agrees to discontinue four-pointing. Attorneys for Johnson and the state are attempting to negotiate a settlement. Hurtt said that the new department will not use four-pointing for punishment, as had been the practice of the Corrections Department, and that each use will have to be approved by the department's assistant director.

15-minute limit
The "Maximum Behavior Control" policy requires that the restraint be terminated after 15 minutes unless the inmate continues to be self-destructive and that the physical condition of those restrained longer be evaluated every 30 minutes. Hurtt SAID offenders who threaten themselves or others will be punished with isolation for a maximum of five days, with their status re-evaluated every two hours. "They will not be denied treatment services," she SAID. The Johnson suit alleges that Matt Johnson, while detained in the Corrections Department's Catalina Mountain Juvenile
Institution in 1985 and 1986, received no treatment during more than 50 consecutive days of isolation. Corrections Department officials have declined to comment on what might have happened to individual inmates such as Matt. Dr. Mark Wellek, a psychiatrist for Scottsdale Camelback Hospital, SAID putting a juvenile in isolation as long as Matt Johnson was amounts to "the slaughter of a soul." Juveniles should be placed in isolation for only 20 minutes, just enough to calm them, he SAID.

Can be 'humiliating'
Four-pointing is not an inherently brutal procedure, but it can lead to brutality if not carefully monitored, Wellek SAID. When juveniles have been tied to a metal bed frame with no mattress and left alone for hours, as alleged in Johnson's suit, the measure has been "humiliating and indecent," he SAID. In psychiatric hospitals, patients are tied to beds with mattresses, and a counselor talks with the patient about his frustrations and helps calm him, Wellek SAID. He SAID that "it's more likely that they (juveniles) will be treated humanely" by the new department but that "it's not a guarantee." Juvenile-corrections officers formerly needed only a high-school diploma and a clean police record. But employees of the new department are required to receive 285 hours of training in dealing with troubled teen-agers by 1992, and new hires must hold associate degrees from a community college.

Example set in Utah
Bill Jamieson, chairman of the Governor's Select Commission on Juvenile Corrections, has pointed to Utah's juvenile-corrections system as an example for Arizona to follow. Ron Stromberg, director of the Utah Office of Social Services, SAID his state never four-pointed juveniles, even before a similar lawsuit by the Center for Youth Law forced reforms. He SAID isolation was "heavily used" at the state's largest juvenile facility, the Youth Development Center in Ogden, before it was closed in 1983 as part of an overhaul spurred by the 1976 suit. "We don't use that stuff anymore. We don't need to," Stromberg SAID. "I think it's unnecessary, and I'm no wild-eyed liberal." Effective counseling by staff members keeps problems from getting out of control, he SAID. Of Utah's secure institutions--which are small, locked facilities - two have isolation rooms, but one room has never been used and the other has been used only twice.

If you look carefully at the 18 differnt words you used to replace "said," you should see that there are very few that actually have to do with speaking. Most of them will have more to do with the "action" taking place. You needed to look at the way the information was originally intended and then think about the nature of the information as well as the original intent. For example, "announced" does not mean the same as "explained," yet either would make a good replacement for the word "said" in this article. Remember this for your own work--when you consider HOW BEST to work in information from a source.

Remember that the purpose here is to make you think about how you are introducing information from a source into your own essays. Consider the original intent and meaning as well as whether the information is really needed in your essay.