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Organizing in Time Order
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Organizing in Time and Emphatic order

Paraphrasing is a difficult task. You need to re-write something for a new audience in your own words, without changing the information from the original text.

Re-write the following for the new audience:

1. The following sentences come from an article about periodism, or "biological clocks." This passage, by Frank Brown, was written for the Biological Bulletin. Try to paraphrase the sentences for a general audience, perhaps the type of people who would read the Saturday Evening Post.

Much has been learned, particularly in recent years, as to the properties, including modifiability, of this endogenous rhythmicity. The fundamental problem, however, that of the timing mechanism of the rhythmic periods, has largely eluded any eminently reasonable hypotheses.

2. Recast the same passage, adapting it to readers of National Geographic World, a magazine for children in elementary school.

3. The following regulations are taken from the Board of Governors' Code for a multi-campus state university. This Code is a legally binding document that is likely to be cited in disputes that are taken to court. The passage below specifies circumstances under which a faculty member with tenure may be dismissed. Suppose a popular instructor on your campus (the Code refers to each campus as an "institution") were dismissed on grounds of "financial exigency." In order to assess the legality of the university's actions, you need to paraphrase the following section of the Code. Assume that your paraphrase will appear in an article for the student newspaper:

The tenure policies and regulations of each institution shall provide that employment of faculty members with permanent tenure ... may be terminated by the institution because of (1)demonstrable, bona fide institutional financial exigency or (2) major curtailment or elimination of a teaching, research or public-service program. "Financial exigency" is defined as a significant decline in the financial resources of the institution that is brought about by decline in institutional enrollment or by other action or events that compel a reduction in the institution's operations budget. The determination of whether a condition of financial exigency exists or whether there shall be a major curtailment or elimination of a teaching, research or public-service program shall be made by the Chancellor, after consulting with the academic administrative officers and faculty.... subject to the concurrence by the President and then approval by the Board of Governors. If the financial exigency or curtailment or elimination of a program is such that the institution's contractual obligation to a faculty member may not be met, the employment of the faculty member may be terminated in accordance with institutional procedures that afford the faculty member a fair hearing on that decision.

Remember when you are paraphrasing information for YOUR reader that they are different from the reader your research source originally wrote for. Judge whether you should paraphrase, quote or summarize based on THEIR needs.